General The sites listed below deal with the nature of mythology in general, or with mythological narratives and/or images coming from several different cultures.
- The Encyclopedia Mythica
- Humanities: Myth/Folklore
- This site is a vast collection of material edited or translated by D. L. Ashliman of the University of Pittsburgh.
Gods and Men LeStat's alphabetical lists contain a lot of information, but you may want to turn your graphics and animation off, as he loves these slow-loading elements.
- Robert Graves Society Robert Graves was a poet and scholar who studied myth and was the author of I, Claudius, a book-length dramatization of Roman History. This link is not a "quickie" access to mythological material, but it can be an excellent source for the person willing to browse a bit.
- On I Claudius There is a great deal of wonderful information on I, Claudius, at this site. (See previous annotation.)
- Canaanite/Ugaritic Mythology FAQ, ver. 1.1
- Hittite/Hurrian Mythology REF
- Astrophysics and Space Science This is not a mythology site, but it does contain some good links to material on the connections between ancient astronomy (and therefore ancient stories) and modern scientific accounts.
Quest A website devoted to an exhibition of manuscripts and printed books from the collections of The British Library, on the topic of the mythical journey.
- Native American Mother Earth Prayers
- Mythmedia - Mythology in Western Art A collection of art images relating to Classical mythology. This collection consists of scanned images from various periods of Western art which depict the deities, and heroes mentioned in Homer. The images are classified according to the names of the various deities and heroes.
- Clio: Women in Mythology, Religion and Herstory
- Gods, Goddesses & Myth Includes material on King Arthur, Voodoo, Celtic Deities and Amazons.
- The Book of Gods, Goddesses, Heroes, and Other Characters of Mythology
(Mythologies of the World)
- The Creation of the World
- Asatru Some of the pages in this site are in English, but much of it is in Icelandic.
- Ingeborg's Unofficial Asatru FAQ
- Mythos Institute: Joseph Campbell's Ten Commandments for Reading Myth Joseph Campbell was a teacher and writer who did much for popularizing and synthesizing mythical material.
- Mythos Institute: What is a Myth? A Checklist
- Rough and Ready Guide to the Gods
- The Gnosis
Archive Gnosticism is a kind of personal religion. It existed in ancient times and there are also modern versions of it. It expresses this personal religious experience through mythical materials. Gnostics use myths, often myths from ancient cultures, to show a kind of transcendent truth of a theological or philosophical nature.
Norse This term usually refers to the stories coming from Iceland, Germany, Norway or Sweden.
- Old Norse Mythology... This page is titled "General information about Sweden," and the site considers the image of the god Loki in different sources. (A "source" usually means a literary or historical work from which we get a mythological story.)
- Germanic Myths, Legends, and Sagas This is a link to the Norse section of the extensive site by D. L. Ashliman which is also listed under "General Mythology" links above.
- The Norse Mythology Web Page
- The killing of Katla for "witchcraft" Mythological issues continue to matter to people in our time. This site provides excerpts from the debate in the newsgroup alt.religion.asatru over a section of the Eyrbyygja Saga, specifically the killing of Katla for "witchcraft". A link is provided to the relevent chapters of the Saga.
- A Timeline of Viking History For those trying to make sense of a mythology, a timeline of historical events can often be helpful.
- The Viking Answer Lady Web Page
- Nordic Literatue (the s.c. nordic FAQ)
- Homepage @
University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology Anthropology (to be extremely brief) is the study of culture, and this often includes mythology. This museum has a fine series of online exhibits featuring artifacts that are important to the stories and rituals found in a culture.
- Snorri Sturluson Snorri is the author of one of the most important literary works on which we base our understanding of Norse myth. This site provides information about the writer and his works.
vs. NORSE MYTHOLOGY People who read myths are always noticing the similarities between the myths of different cultures. This site tackles the issue head-on, but it does not represent the only view of the subject. The site is listed here, not under "General Mythology," above, because its main focus is on Norse myth.
Greek Greek and Roman gods and heroes are featured in the sites listed below.
- Perseus Project This is a vast site. If you are not sure how to approach it, you might try two parts of the site, one on Hercules and the other on The Ancient
Olympics. There's a lot more here than those two topics, however! As a sample, try looking up Hera under "H" in the Perseus Encyclopedia Index (look for the alphabet at the bottom of the page).
- Encyclopedia of Greek Myth
- Parada Greek Mythology Link.
- Classical Mythology by Geography This site helps you to create a "mental model" of Greek culture by organizing mythical material around a map of Greece.
- Diotima: Women & Gender in the Ancient World
- The Ecole Initiative: The Eleusinian Mysteries This site also seems to be available at: Mirror
- Greek Mythology Stories Creation Man Prometheus
- CLASSICS COURSE CLA 212 MYTHOLOGY Home Page
- Classics Gods Images Page
- Myth and Symbol in the Pattern of Truth (1994)Frederick Edwords This paper from Humanism Today makes an interesting link between Euripides' Bacchae and vampirism.
- Vampires Or Gods? by William Meyers This page gives a series of links between Greek mythology and vampirism.
- Euripides' The Bacchae and "Girls Just Wanna Have Fun": the Socio-Cultural Role of Women This page makes connections between Xena: Warrior Princess and Greek mythology.
- BACCHAE AND THE SUCCESSFUL MIXING OF TRADITIONAL AND CONTEMPORARY VAMPIRES Another page with connections between Xena: Warrior Princess and Greek mythology.
(c. 900 B.C.) This page from Malaspina Great Books is a series of links that provide more information on Homer, whose poems, The Odyssey and The Iliad are a very important source for the stories that constitute Greek mythology. (A "source" usually means a literary or historical work from which we get a mythological story.)
- Classical Myth: The Ancient Sources It is a good idea to make an early visit to the "How to Use This Site" link found on this site.
- FOCUS on the Mythology of Gods -- The Olympians
- The Myth of Cheiron
- Hercules - Heracles
- Bulfinch's 'The Age of Fable' - Table of Contents As the Notes and Links on this site point out, "Thomas Bulfinch (1796-1867) wrote The Age of Fable as a work of popular readable entertainment and its glossing over of detail makes it eminently suitable for hypertext markup of key words for those readers who want to delve further into the fascinating (albeit labyrinthean) world of primary and secondary mythology sources."
- Home Pages of the Classicists The links on this site lead you to long-term exploration. On this site you can access, all in one place, the home pages of lots of different people with an interest in Greek and Roman culture, and wander through the materials they thought interesting. This would lead you to more information on mythology, and probably a lot else.
- The Internet Classics Archive This is a collection of texts written by authors from classical times. Try Homer, Apollodorus and Ovid first, and then some others. There are also comments by other readers.
- The Legend of the Trojan War
- Who is Medea, and Why do So Many People Hate Her?
Humanist "Humanism" is usually (but not always) short for "secular humanism," or the beliefs of people who do not believe in a religion or god. You might think that such a belief lacks a mythology, but this is not the case. Secular humanists also have a series of stories to tell about "life, the universe and all that" (to quote the formulation of The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Universe), and like all mythology, humanist stories make good use of the scientific beliefs that prevail in their time period.
Internet Infidels' Secular Web
- The WWW Virtual Library: Evolution (Biosciences) Evolution is the topic on which the stories told by some scientists and some religious leaders diverge the most. This page provides easy access to scientists' views of the matter. Even though some religions will claim to have their own "alternative science" on these matters, this page more closely represents what is usually called science in our time.
- William Comyns Beaumont: Britain's Most Eccentric & Least
Known Cosmic Heretic This page is really about "catastrophism," the belief that the world will be destroyed by a major catastrophe. This has also been called "apocalypse" in religious literature, but this page is the discussion of the theories of scientists to this effect.
Bible For some people, speaking of the Bible as containing myths might be viewed as insulting. However, in my view, myths are sacred stories (not "false" stories or stupid stories that people had before they knew the truth through science), so of necessity, they are found in the sacred books, like the Bible.
- NBC Broadcasts "Noah's Ark" Miniseries This is not really about the Bible, but about what decisions people made in putting the Bible on TV.
- The Flood of Noah and the Flood of Gilgamesh
- The Bible Toolbox This site allows you to search the Bible, by passage or keyword. I recommend selection of the New Revised Standard Version, or NRSV, in the second group of choices.
- RELS 011: The Origins of Western Religion
- The Institute for Creation Research: A Christ Focused Creation Ministry
Tricksters The Trickster is a special kind of hero found in myths. He is not always a hero in the sense of a person you'd want to emulate, but he is always interesting, and it's fun to watch him snare the unwary in his wiles.
- Peter Michaels' Trickster Page This page contains a wide range of material on tricksters from Wile E. Coyote, to Loki, the Icelandic god. In between? Why Pee Wee Herman of course!
- The metaphors and rituals of liminality, or why Christopher Robin wouldn't walk on the cracks Liminality is a charcateristic typical of tricksters. A "limen" is a threshold, and tricksters are typically on the threshold between two worlds, and can play between them while belonging to neither one.
- Syllabus: Tricksters of North America
Daniel Boone Another kind of hero is the "founder of nations," and the American Daniel Boone fits in this category. In looking at his legend, we get to consider the interesting question of whether a "real" historical person can be a mythical figure. The answer, of course, is that he can!
- Expanding Frontier and Daniel Boone This page is a good starting-point for the basics on the Daniel Boone myth.
- Daniel Boone: Chronology This page gives the major milestones in Boone's life.
- Daniel Boone Links This school project has brought together a fine collection of links about Daniel Boone.
- Daniel Boone: Empire Builder or Philosopher of Primitivism This section of Henry Nash Smith's book called Virgin Land: The American Myth as Symbol and Myth deals with Daniel Boone.
- HNS\VIRGIN\CONTENTS This page gives the Table of Contents of Virgin Land: The American Myth as Symbol and Myth, summarizes the book by Smith and provides some reviews of it.
- Daniel Boone: Myth and Reality As part of explaining Henry Nash Smith's views, the University of Virginia site provides a page on Boone and different aspects of his persona or image as a mythical figure.
- The Adventures of Daniel Boone This 1784 book by John Filson, entitled, The Adventures of Colonel Daniel Boon, Formerly A Hunter; Containing a Narrative of the Wars of Kentucky is the basis of much of the mythical story told even to this day about the great frontiersman.
The American West It was in the course of my investigation of stories about Daniel Boone that I became aware of the many kinds of stories which can be found in the study of the United States' Western expansion. The links below provide a small indication of the different kinds of mythologies available in this realm.
- The Sun-Dance of the Sioux This is a first-person account by Frederick Schwatka from the 1889-1890 issue of Century Magazine describing the Sioux ceremony he witnessed at Beaver Creek, Nebraska.
- Romantic Racialism: A Comparison An examination by William Wesley of the portrayal of African Americans in the works of James Fenimore Cooper and Mark Twain.
- E684 Reading List This is a course in American literary theory, but in the process of defining the American view of things, the course focuses to a significant extent on what Americans learn about themselves through their stories, so the reading are relevant to a discussion of the American West. See
the course description for more about why the readings are relevant.
- American Literature as a Tool for the Propagation of
Myth This discussion of Richard Slotkin's Regeneration Through Violence comes from a student in E684 at the University of Delaware, the course described in the previous item.
- Master Plots: Race and the Founding of an American Literature, 1787-1845 This is a synopsis of Jared Gardner's book which explains that "Gardner argues that the national literature of the United States was equally motivated by the desire to differentiate white Americans from blacks and Indians."
- Eighteenth-Century Studies 29.4 (1996) 413-431
"Sleep-Walking Out of the Revolution: Brown's Edgar Huntly" by Paul Downes The issue addressed in this scholarly article, as often in studies of the frontier, turns out to be, "To what extent, and in what ways, did the American settlers project aspects of their internal conflicts upon the landscape and inhabitants of the New World?" The article provides considerable information on the content of the novel under discussion.
- Readings in Colonial British North America Syllabus
- The Domestic West This project is an effort to illustrate a group missing from Henry Nash Smith's Virgin Land, America's women on the Western frontier. (On Smith's book, see the links under Daniel Boone, above.)
- Largent's Lone Ranger Page This page of fan homage illustrates the stories of the American West which have entered the culture.
St. Francis Another type of hero is the saint, and St. Francis is one of the most amazing figures of this type.
- Franciscan Web Page The Franciscans were founded by Saint Francis of Assisi (1182-4 Oct 1226) and Saint Clare of Assisi (1194-11 Aug 1253). This page represents a union of Roman Catholic, Anglican and other Protestant groups endeavoring to follow the teachings of Francis and Clare. The site includes a walking tour of Assissi and Franciscan clip art.
- Chapter 3 - Romance and Reality This site helps provide a historical context for Francis. Also on the same site, see the other artistic and historical elements which are part of an understanding of his time period. Unit 1: The Middle Ages
- Catholic Encyclopedia: St. Francis of Assissi
- Who's Who in the History of Mysticism
- Ed's Franciscan Notes
- Concerts & Lectures This site includes a brief synopsis of a story about Francis of Assisss told by Dr. Robert Bela Wilhelm, an award-winning storyteller who specializes in stories of spiritual quests.
- Storyfest Journey: Walking in the Footsteps of Saint Francis & Saint Clare A journey projected for April, 2000 is described and illustrated with art work related to Francis and Clare.
Clare - An image of God Extract of a talk given by Sr. Marie Colette OSC at the General Assembly of the Conferenza Francescana Internazionale - TOR, Assisi 16-22 May 1993
- The Franciscan Experience This site contains extensive detail about the lives of St. Francis and St. Clare, as well as about the Franciscan movement. Especially nice here is the description of sources for the life of Francis which continues for several pages: just keep clicking the next button on the bottom of the page.
St. Nicholas This saint is the precursor of the American Santa Claus, but Americans may be surprised at some of the traditions associated with him.
- St. Nicholas Here are three different versions, for different audiences, of the story of the jolly old elf.
- Santa's Companions So you thought Santa worked alone? His companions are an important part of the story, in some stories at least. This page features my personal favorite, Krampus.
- German Customs and their Origins This page, on the same site as the previous one, links Santa Claus to Germanic stories.
- Linkliste Weinacht This page of links is in German, but it leads to a lot of neat material, some of it in English, about Christmas and St. Nicholas.
- Nikolaus, Heilige This page is also in German, but its links lead to some pages with great illutrations of St. Nicholas and his court.
- Indiana University Folklore Institute This is a definition of folklore, good background for understanding what a folk tale is.
- The stories of Hans Christian Anderson The works of the 19th century Danish storyteller reflect the personality and interests of their author (which are well described on this site) and thus are not folk tales. However, Anderson's stories make a wonderful contrast with traditional stories. Links on this site lead to the texts, so you can read them for yourself.